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American Language Journal
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I get maf wey you get mɔf: Pronunciation and Identity in Ghanaian Student Pidgin
Kwaku Osei-Tutu, pp. 8-25
Abstract (Ghanaian Student Pidgin). This study dey describe phonological processes (vowel change, deletion and stress/tone variation) wey the young people dem dey speak pidgin for Ghana dey take dey create different pronunciations for the pidgin inside, which dem dey use alongside the original pronunciations. The study also dey look say what be the implications wey e dey give the different pronunciations for the people wey dem de speak the pidgin. The info wey I take do the study dey come from people wey them do group conversation, interview then focus group discussions give. The findings dey indicate say free variation dey happen sake-of the people wey dem dey speak the pidgin dey wan get a code that go be distinctive dem divergent from the ble wey people de speak for Ghana then the old people dema pidgin. This also dey mean say the people wey dem no dey speak GSP no go fi barb am. Also, the people wey dem dey the focus group inside dey talk say the various pronunciation choices dem get for pidgin inside (sake-of the phonological variation) dey show who fit speak proper pidgin. E be like say the people dem dey use the pronunciation wey ordinary people no go fit barb be the ones dem de talk the proper pidgin.
Abstract (English). This study describes phonological processes (vowel change, deletion and stress/tone variation) which are employed by the speakers of Ghanaian Student Pidgin (GSP) – a Ghanaian youth language – to create variable pronunciations existing in free variation with the original pronunciations and explores the implications of the variation for the GSP speech community. The data for the study was collected by recording group conversations, conducting individual interviews and two focus group discussions. The findings indicate that free variation happens because the speakers want to create a code that is distinctive to them and as divergent from Ghanaian English (and Town Pidgin) as possible and, by extension, make GSP nearly unintelligible to the non-speaker. In relation to this, the focus group discussions reveal that the various pronunciation choices that are available to speakers (as a result of phonological variation) create the possibility of levels of proficiency for the speakers. That is, speakers who use the more divergent (and by
Keywords: Ghanaian Student Pidgin; Youth Language; Phonological Variation; Identity.
Secondary Students’ Motivational Beliefs in Second Language Learning under High-Stakes Assessment
Hyun Jin Cho, Mike Yough, Chorong Lee, pp. 27-38
Abstract. English as a foreign language (EFL) is considered one of the most important subjects in Korean secondary schools making achievement tests in this subject high-stakes by nature. Although English is viewed as a high-stakes subject, there are few studies that show students’ qualitative evidence of secondary students’ motivational beliefs in a second language context. The purpose of the present study is to qualitatively explore Korean secondary school students’ subjective task values of English as a content area, task value of assessment, students’ achievement goal orientations toward English assessments, and attributions in second language learning. Implications from the findings and future research are discussed.
Keywords: Motivational beliefs; Subjective task value; Goal orientation; Attribution; Second language assessment
Using Corpora to Analyze Learner English: The Case of the Dative Alternation
Giovanna Silvestro, pp. 40-51
Abstract. Traditionally, contrastive analyses of learner language and native language have been conducted relying solely on intuition tests. Adopting corpus linguistics methodologies, this paper attempts to investigate how French learners of English acquire the dative alternation. Two L2 corpora of spoken English have been analyzed and, then, compared to a corpus of native English. An examination of their concordance lines and a comparison of their frequencies in both learners’ and native speakers’ conversations have revealed that the distribution of the to-variant and the double object variant in learner language might depend on several factors: a transfer from the learners’ L1, an awareness of the native speakers’ preferences, a low proficiency level or a personal stylistic choice. In spite of its limitations and the lack of a straightforward interpretation of the findings, this research can offer an insight into the learners’ actual use of the target language and can constitute a starting point for further studies.
Keywords: Second language acquisition; Language transfer; Corpus Linguistics
Critical Literacy and Children’s Identity Development
Jung Han and Hyun Jin Cho, pp. 52-60
Abstract: ‘What should we teach to our children?’ is the most important and frequently asked question in the education field. Concerning this question, teachers and educators continually discussed and contemplated on how to teach children and how to design educational setting for children to work together to construct their positive identities in our society and to experience learning, which helps them to develop their ‘desirable selves’ (Bean & Moni, 2003). This study investigates how we could expose children to the context, where they can participate in real-life situations, and encourage them to think critically about the world they are situated in. For this purpose, critical literacy is addressed as a tool for teaching and learning, which allow us to critique and redirect our society to a better place. Through the review of the literature, critical curriculum and conversation are also highlighted to teach children to develop positive identities. Finally, the researchers conclude that we need to create respectful climates of learning environments, where students can develop understandings of complex issues from different perspectives.
Keywords: Critical literacy; Literacy education; Identity development
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